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Fire Alarm System

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FIRE ALARM SYSTEM

Contents

Phase 1

Objective

Raise an alarm if there is a fire in the place through display and sound system.

Team Details

  • Coordinator - Harish Choragudi hc204@msstate.edu
  • Recorder - Kalyan Pavurapu - kp240@msstate.edu
  • Checker – Vinay Gudivendala - vg101@msstate.edu

Introduction

In today's world the necessity for fire alarm systems have been raising their significance tremendously. The fire alarm systems can prevent many disasters from happening thereby saving precious lives of people and also the property loss. The applications of such systems prevailed in various sectors ranging from small houses to big coliseums and even in transportation like trains and airplanes.

Concept

In our prototype a thermistor is used to sense any increase in temperature around the place. The resistance of the thermistor varies with temperature rise. This variation helps in calculating the variations. These analog voltage variations will be converted to digital and fed as an input to the Basys board and the calibrated temperature variations will be displayed in seven Segment Display. When the temperature raises a certain threshold levels different kinds of alarming outputs starts indicating through VGA Monitor, Piezo buzzer, and LED flash. This Project is titled as Fire Alarm System.

Proposed Work

Hardware Requirements

  1. The Thermistor is used to sense the heat rise and its resistance increases. This helps in calculating the voltage variations with the heat rise.
  2. The analog output voltage from the sensor is converted to digital using A-D(8-bit) converter
  3. The 8-bit data is calibrated to the temperature variations and displayed in Seven Segment Display.
  4. The variation of the temperature rise will be displayed on the VGA output in the changing colors from green, orange and red. As the temperature crosses the first threshold level the first warning system shows up in the VGA monitor by turning the color red.
  5. As the second threshold level is crossed the LED’s Flash will glow
  6. Finally when the critical threshold is crossed Piezobuzzer will sound.

Hardware Details

  1. Thermistor
    1. Part Number: NTCLE100E3...B0
    2. Resistance value at 25 °C 3.3 Ω to 470 kΩ
    3. Maximum dissipation 500 mW
    4. Operating temperature range: at zero dissipation; continuously - 40 to + 125 °C
    5. Order From: http //www.sparkfun.com/commerce/hdr.php?p=contactus
    6. Order Ships within 7 days
    7. Cost: Price: $1.95
  2. PIC 18F242: Data sheet can be found here  : Data Sheet
  3. Spartan -3e board
  4. External Power supply
  5. Piezo buzzer
    1. Product Name:28MM PIEZO BUZZER 6.6~0.6KHZ 20MA 3-28VDC
    2. Resonant frequency: 6.6~0.6 KHz,
    3. Diameter: 28 mm,
    4. Operating Voltage: 3~28 VDC,
    5. Rated Current: 20 mA,
    6. Sound Output Level: Minimum 85 dB at 10 cm
  6. VGA monitor
  7. Connecting Wires

Expected Deliverables

With the help of all the above-mentioned components, we would be able to find the rise in temperature on the Seven Segment Display with calibration and indicate the warnings on VGA monitor, Piezo buzzer and LEDs.

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM

Phase 2

Objective

Raise an alarm if there is a fire in the place through display and sound system.

Team Details

  • Coordinator - Harish Choragudi hc204@msstate.edu
  • Recorder - Kalyan Pavurapu - kp240@msstate.edu
  • Checker – Vinay Gudivendala - vg101@msstate.edu

Introduction

In today's world the necessity for fire alarm systems have been raising their significance tremendously. The fire alarm systems can prevent many disasters from happening thereby saving precious lives of people and also the property loss. The applications of such systems prevailed in various sectors ranging from small houses to big coliseums and even in transportation like trains and airplanes.

Concept

In our prototype a thermistor is used to sense any increase in temperature around the place. The resistance of the thermistor varies with temperature rise. This variation helps in calculating the variations. These analog voltage variations will be converted to digital and fed as an input to the Basys board and the calibrated temperature variations will be displayed in seven Segment Display. When the temperature raises a certain threshold levels different kinds of alarming outputs starts indicating through VGA Monitor, Piezo buzzer, and LED flash. This Project is titled as Fire Alarm System.

Proposed Work

Hardware Requirements

  1. The Thermistor is used to sense the heat rise and its resistance increases. This helps in calculating the voltage variations with the heat rise.
  2. The analog output voltage from the sensor is converted to digital using A-D(8-bit) converter
  3. The 8-bit data is calibrated to the temperature variations and displayed in Seven Segment Display.
  4. The variation of the temperature rise will be displayed on the VGA output in the changing colors from green, orange and red. As the temperature crosses the first threshold level the first warning system shows up in the VGA monitor by turning the color red.
  5. As the second threshold level is crossed the LED’s Flash will glow
  6. Finally when the critical threshold is crossed Piezobuzzer will sound.

Hardware Details

  1. Thermistor
    1. Part Number: NTCLE100E3...B0
    2. Resistance value at 25 °C 3.3 Ω to 470 kΩ
    3. Maximum dissipation 500 mW
    4. Operating temperature range: at zero dissipation; continuously - 40 to + 125 °C
    5. Order From: http //www.sparkfun.com/commerce/hdr.php?p=contactus
    6. Order Ships within 7 days
    7. Cost: Price: $1.95
  2. PIC 18F242: Data sheet can be found here  :[ http://www.ece.msstate.edu/~hc204/datasheet.pdf Data Sheet]
  3. Spartan -3e board
  4. External Power supply
  5. Piezo buzzer
    1. Product Name:28MM PIEZO BUZZER 6.6~0.6KHZ 20MA 3-28VDC
    2. Resonant frequency: 6.6~0.6 KHz,
    3. Diameter: 28 mm,
    4. Operating Voltage: 3~28 VDC,
    5. Rated Current: 20 mA,
    6. Sound Output Level: Minimum 85 dB at 10 cm
  6. VGA monitor
  7. Connecting Wires

Modules

  • The Thermistor is connected to the PIC from which the data pins are connected to Spartan 3E Basys board through A2 extension ports. The temperature samples are transfered through this PIC and are displayed on the Seven Segment Display on the Basys board.(Harish Choragudi)
  • The A/D (8-bit) converter is used to convert the analog output to digital output. This digital outputis fed to Spartan board through the expansion connector pins A2. The necessary changes are made in the configuration file Basys.ucf.(Vinay Gudivendala)
  • The Calculate module takes the input as the 8-bit digital data and calibrates the Temperature . This module is used to measure the temperature from the thermistor and also gives a warning through the counter to the peizo buzzer and also to display in the monitor.(Harish Choragudi)
  • BCD module is created to convert the distance from binary to decimal value representation. The 8-bit binary distance is taken as input and decimal value is obtained as output .This decimal value is used to display the temperature on the Seven Segment Display.(Kalyan Pavurapu)
  • Seven Segment module is used to display the Distance in Seven Segment display by taking the input from the BCD module. This can be verified in each anode of the Seven Segment Display. (Vinay Gudivendala)
  • The VGA_draw module is created by taking the inputs as video_on, Row, Column, Object X, Object Y and Red, Green, Blue as outputs.(Kalyan Pavurapu)
  • The VGA_ sync module is used for display purpose and this is obtained from the previous lab.
  • 4-bit Counter is implemented by enabling the clock only when the beep signal is high. And the 4-bit output is given through an OR gate to the piezo buzzer, in order to have a square pulse to the piezo buzzer. This makes the buzzer to ring.(Harish Choragudi)

Expected Deliverables

With the help of all the above-mentioned components, we would be able to find the rise in temperature on the Seven Segment Display with calibration and indicate the warnings on VGA monitor, Piezo buzzer and LEDs.

Phase 3

Review of Proposed Work

The modules mentioned in the Phase 2 have been programmed and implemented. The modules are functioning as expected. The thermistor detects the rise in temperature and it sends the analog signals to the PIC. The PIC converts the analog signal to digital output and sends the samples to the Spartan 3E Basys Board through the A2 extension ports. The calculate module verifies the samples and displays the temperature on the seven segment display. If the temperature is below a certain limit. The LED's and the Piezo buzzer are disabled and Plus sign is displayed on the monitor which is in Green color. The temperature of the thermistor is increased by using an external device such as Lighter, Hair Dryer. As the temperature of the thermistor is increased it reflects on the LED display. When the temperature exceeds certain limit the LED's flashes continously. This is taken as first warning. If the temperature further exceeds then both LED's and also the Plus symbol displayed on the monitor changes its color to RED. This is taken as second level warning. If there is further increase in temperature. The Buzzer is activated and an alaram is heard along with LED's and display on the monitor. This is taken as final level warning.

Module Descriptions

As we worked on the project some more modules needs to be added and for some modules additional inputs and outputs need to be added. Here is the final description of the all the modules we used in our final version of the project.


1. Calculate

  • Inputs:
    • mclk-50 MHz clock signal
    • IO[7:0]-8-bit digital input from the A/D converter.
  • Outputs:
    • distance[7:0]-calibrated output of the 8-bit digital input from the A/D converter.
    • beep-This signal is used to make the buzzer module to trigger.
    • led_trigger- This signal used to make the flash module to trigger.
  • Description:The Calculate module takes the input as the 8-bit digital data and calibrates the Temperature . This module is used to measure the temperature from the thermistor and also gives a warning through the counter to the peizo buzzer and also to display in the monitor.

2. Flash

  • Inputs:
    • mclk-50 MHz clock signal
    • High[7:0] - This is used as the input to the LEDs to flash.
  • Outputs:
    • led[7:0]- This signal is used for the LED output ports to flash
  • Description: This module is programmed such that when there is rise in temperature and crosses a certain limit. The LED's glow continously. This is given as a first level warning.

3. bcd

  • Inputs:
    • char[7:0] - This is the binary input which has to be converted to the BCD form
  • Outputs:
    • bcd[11:0]- This is the BCD output which will be displayed on the seven-segment display.
  • Description: BCD module is created to convert the distance from binary to decimal value representation. The 8-bit binary distance is taken as input and decimal value is obtained as output .This decimal value is used to display the temperature on the Seven Segment Display.

4. draw_vga

  • Inputs:
    • mclk-50 MHz clock signal
    • video_on - video signal for the VGA output
    • ballX[7:0] - Calibrated input of the movement of the object on the VGA
    • pixel_row[9:0] - 10-bit row-wise input for the VGA monitor.
    • pixel_column[9:0] - 10-bit column-wise input for the VGA monitor
  • Outputs:
    • red - color signal to the VGA monitor
    • green - color signal to the VGA monitor
    • blue - color signal to the VGA monitor

5. vga_sync:This module handles the synchronization of VGA signals, turning on the vertical and horizontal sync lines with the proper timing, and providing the currently drawn pixels to other modules that actually choose what color to draw a given pixel. This module is useful for resolutions of 640x480 and 128x96

  • Inputs:
    • clk -- 50MHz clock signal
  • Outputs:
    • h_sync -- VGA horizontal synchronization signal
    • v_sync -- VGA vertical synchronization signal
    • video_on -- Turns on when drawing occurs, and turns off during the VGA "blanking" time.
    • pixel_row -- The row (0-479) of the currently drawn pixel.
    • pixel_column -- The column (0-639) of the currently drawn pixel.
    • subpixel_row -- Same as pixel_row, but increments every five pixels, giving a 96-pixel resolution.
    • subpixel_column -- Same as pixel_column, but increments every five pixels, giving a 128-pixel resolution.

6. buzzer

  • Inputs:
    • mclk- 50 Mhz clock signal
    • trigger[7:0] - 8-bit input for the data output ports of A2 extension ports of the Spartan 3E Basys board.
  • Outputs:
    • buzz[7:0] - used for the piezo buzzer input.
  • Description: The positive and Ground pins of the Piezo Buzzer are connected to the Spartan 3E Basys board through the Data Port and the Ground respectively. The constraints for the buzzer are updated in the Basys.ucf file. When thermistor temperature increases to certain level. The buzzer is activated and the alaram can be heard.

Expected Deliverables

With the help of all the above-mentioned components, we would be able to find the rise in temperature on the Seven Segment Display with calibration and indicate the warnings on VGA monitor, Piezo buzzer and LEDs.

Phase 4

Review of Proposed Work

The modules mentioned in the Phase 2 have been programmed and implemented. The modules are functioning as expected. The thermistor detects the rise in temperature and it sends the analog signals to the PIC. The PIC converts the analog signal to digital output and sends the samples to the Spartan 3E Basys Board through the A2 extension ports. The calculate module verifies the samples and displays the temperature on the seven segment display. If the temperature is below a certain limit. The LED's and the Piezo buzzer are disabled and Plus sign is displayed on the monitor which is in Green color. The temperature of the thermistor is increased by using an external device such as Lighter, Hair Dryer. As the temperature of the thermistor is increased it reflects on the LED display. When the temperature exceeds certain limit the LED's flashes continously. This is taken as first warning. If the temperature further exceeds then both LED's and also the Plus symbol displayed on the monitor changes its color to RED. This is taken as second level warning. If there is further increase in temperature. The Buzzer is activated and an alaram is heard along with LED's and display on the monitor. This is taken as final level warning.

Top Level Schematic Diagram

Image:schematic_fire.jpg

Snapshot of Setup

Image:DSC0047.jpg

Interface With Basys Board

Image:DSC0046.jpg

Source Code

The Source Code here

Verification Plan

The fire alaram design setup can be verified by connecting the hardware interface with the basys board. The hardware setup includes the thermistor, PIC and Piezo buzzer. The basys board is conneceted to the VGA monitor. After increasing the temperature of the thermistor from external source. The temperature is measured on the seven segment display. The samples from the PIC is displayed. By increasing the temperature it is observed that 3 warning levels occur. At 1st warning level the LED's flash. At second warning level the red color PLUS symbol is displayed on the monitor. At third warning level an alaram comes from Piezo Buzzer.

Expected Deliverables

With the help of all the above-mentioned components, we would be able to find the rise in temperature on the Seven Segment Display with Calculate Module and indicate the warnings on VGA monitor, Piezo buzzer and LEDs.